Bristol geologist who modernised volcanology wins 2015 Vetlesen Prize
Press release issued: 20 January 2015
Professor Stephen Sparks of the University of Bristol, a geologist whose work has improved understanding of how volcanoes work and our ability to forecast deadly volcanic eruptions, will receive the 2015 Vetlesen Prize, an award considered to be the Nobel Prize of the earth sciences.
Professor Sparks will be awarded a medal and $250,000 at a ceremony in New York in June. The Vetlesen Prize is supported by the G. Unger Vetlesen Foundation and administered by Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory at Columbia University.
As a graduate student in the 1970s, Sparks became one of the first to apply maths and physics to the interpretation of volcanic deposits in the field, bringing volcanology into the modern era. His methodical, collaborative approach has produced a long list of discoveries that have improved understanding of volcanoes and volcanic hazards globally.
Professor Michael Walter, Head of the School of Earth Sciences at Bristol, said: “The Faculty of Science and the School of Earth Sciences could not be prouder of Steve for being awarded the prestigious Vetlesen Prize. His scientific accomplishments are manifold, and his legacy in terms of his influence on the field of volcanology, and Earth Sciences more generally, and the students he has trained during his career, are second to none.”
Born near London and raised in the city of Chester, Sparks developed an early interest in rocks exploring the caves and crags of the British countryside. He studied geology at Imperial College in London; an expedition that first summer mapping volcanic rocks in southern Iceland sealed his interest in volcanoes.
After finishing his PhD in 1974, Sparks worked with colleagues to model eruptive processes during stints at Lancaster University in Britain and the University of Rhode Island. In a 1977 study in Nature, he showed how magma deep within the earth could mix with material closer to the surface to trigger an explosive eruption. Working with physicist Lionel Wilson, he explained how explosions sometimes shoot ash high into the stratosphere, but at other times unleash deadly flows of ash and gas down the flanks of volcanoes.
He went on to show in Icelandic volcanoes that the sideways flow of magma could cause the spectacular collapse of a caldera up to 40 miles away. Off the coast of Greece, his analysis of deep-sea volcanic rocks added support for the idea that the Thera eruption around 1,500 BC may have influenced the fall of the ancient Minoans on the island of Crete.
In 1978, Sparks moved to the University of Cambridge, where he published a series of influential papers with mathematician Herbert Huppert on the physics of magma chambers beneath volcanoes. In lab experiments, they demonstrated how heavy magma can become unstable and, counterintuitively, rise.
In 1989, amid a restructuring of Britain’s research universities, Sparks and geochemist Bernie Wood were tapped to lead the University of Bristol’s geology department. There, in a country with no volcanoes of its own, they built one of the world’s leading centres for volcanology and the earth sciences.
When Montserrat’s Soufrière Hills volcano came to life in 1995, Sparks was picked to head monitoring efforts there and advise the government. Ongoing research has led to a better understanding of pyroclastic flows – rapid exhalations of gas, ash and rock dished out by explosive volcanoes like Soufrière Hills and its neighbour, Mount Pelée on Martinique, whose 1902 eruption killed 30,000 people.
Drawing on data from Soufrière Hills, Sparks helped to show in a 1999 study in Nature how small pressure variations in a volcano’s magma chamber, or in the stickiness of its magma, can create wild mood swings, turning a gently oozing eruption into something explosive. He also pioneered methods for assessing the danger posed by active volcanic eruptions, helping governments to improve decisions about evacuations and rebuilding. Thanks in part to Sparks’s work, the eruptions on Montserrat are now taught in British schools.
More recently, in a 2006 study in the Journal of Petrology, Sparks helped model the evolution of earth’s crust in deep “hot zones” where chemically altered magmas drive volcanism. He has partnered with the mining company BHP Billiton in Chile and DeBeers in South Africa to learn more about the volcanic processes that produce copper and diamond deposits. He has also assessed the safety of old volcanic rocks in Britain, Japan and the United States for storing radioactive waste. He has coordinated a global assessment of volcanic risk for the United Nations.
Professor Michael Walter added: “Steve’s insatiable curiosity, his ability to see straight to the heart of a problem, his relentless pursuit of excellence in science, and his modesty when dealing with colleagues and students alike, make this award very richly deserved.”
Elected to the Royal Society at the early age of 38, he is among the top-cited volcanologists ever. An enthusiasm to share his knowledge has led to frequent appearances on TV and in print. Colleagues remark on his collegiality. “Everyone has an egotism that drives their research, but Steve never lets it get in the way of working with others,” said Barry Voight, a volcanologist at Penn State. “You know he’s not going to pick your brain and run off with your ideas. Instead, he will often improve on them.”
Professor Tim Gallagher, Dean of the Faculty of Science at Bristol, said: “The award of the Vetlesen Prize to Professor Steve Sparks recognises a career of outstanding scholarship and achievement. Steve, through that scholarship and his leadership, has inspired countless students and colleagues, and defined ambition within Earth Sciences, across the wider University and beyond though the critical role he played in the evolution of the Cabot Institute. That leadership has been both highly influential and greatly valued, and in no small part for the totally selfless manner in which it has been delivered.”
Professor Rich Pancost, Director of the Cabot Institute at Bristol, added: “Steve’s interests continued to expand and diversify through his entire career. Building on his understanding of volcanic hazards, he forged new collaborations with mathematicians, geographers and social scientists in order to assist communities from across the world. This group was at the sharp edge of developing the multidisciplinary practices that are now common at Bristol and globally respected, and it remains at the heart of Bristol’s risk-based research. As such, Steve was one of the intellectual and inspirational founders of the University of Bristol's Cabot Institute, dedicated to research on living with environmental uncertainty.”
Sparks lives in Bristol with his wife, Ann Talbot Sparks, a primary school teacher; they have two grown sons. His previous awards include the Geological Society of London’s Wollaston Medal in 2011, the European Geosciences Union’s Arthur Holmes Medal in 2004 and the Geological Society of America’s Arthur Day Medal in 2000.
Since the Vetlesen Prize was first awarded in 1959, recipients have included geologist J. Tuzo Wilson, a key force in developing the theory of plate tectonics; oceanographer Walter Munk, whose work has shaped our understanding of tides, waves, and ocean mixing; astronomer Jan Oort, who elucidated the architecture of galaxies and the outer solar system; geochemist Wallace Broecker, a father of modern climate science; and geologist Walter Alvarez, who connected the extinction of the dinosaurs to an asteroid impact.